The aggregate the Romans used included pieces of rock, ceramic tiles, and bricks from older, demolished buildings

The aggregate the Romans used included pieces of rock, ceramic tiles, and bricks from older, demolished buildings

Per very early style of Roman architecture, the «opus quadratum» dates back to the time of the ancient Etruscans, before the beginning of the Roman Republic

Like any other concrete, Roman concrete consists of aggregate and mortar. A binder, such as gypsum, was used. What other type of binder was also used? Be careful, though. You don’t want onesto put this in your mojito!

After being mixed with water, the mortar, which consisted of gypsum or lime, would harden over time. In some areas pozzolana, also called pit sand, was used.

It was common con ancient times for prominent Romans to construct tombs along the Appian Way. The original covering of the tomb per the picture has been removed esatto show the bare concrete.

Placed at verso forty-five degree angle, the diamond-shaped bricks were normally made of tuff or tufa, which is per rock made from consolidated volcanic ash pushed out during verso volcanic eruption. «Opus» (term for verso piece of art) and «reticulatum» (net-like), translates puro net-work; the design was named because the Romans believed the brickwork resembled per net. This design was prevalent con the first century BC.

Latin for «brickwork», «opus latericium» was the design used during the imperial periodo sopra Rome. A Roman architect, Vitruvius, used this term for structures that were built with unfired bricks.

The example of «opus reticulatum» durante the picture comes from verso wall in the city of Pompeii, which was destroyed by the eruption of Mt

Verso new Appian Way was constructed per 1784 that was parallel with the old one; now the older section of road that dates back sicuro Roman times is called the «Via Appia Antic». The building is an example of per tomb, built along the old stretch of the road, which dates back sicuro ancient Rome.

Generally, this decorative pattern was used sopra the construction of pavement, but it was also used as per pattern on walls and as firebacks in hearths. This design was also used during the Middle Ages, as evidenced at Usk Castle sopra Wales, and into the Renaissance. Filippo Brunelleschi used this pattern in constructing the dome of the Cathedral of Florence.

Believed esatto be the world’s oldest shopping mall, Trajan’s Market was constructed durante the Roman Forum in the 100s AD. The multi-level structure included shops, offices, and even per library! The herringbone pattern was used onesto pave the floor of the market.

One of the earliest Roman architectural styles, «opus incertum» first utilized irregularly-shaped rocks and careful placement preciso make the concrete work look as plain as possible. Later the amount of concrete used was reduced, and more uniform stones were selected. This made the exterior immagine even plainer.

Mediante ancient times the Italian town of Terracina was strategically located for the defense of the city of Rome. The vertice of the city has verso massive terrace, on which stood The Temple of Jupiter Anxur. Built during the first century BC, the temple was dedicated puro Jupiter as per young man.

Also called «opus compositum», «opus mixtum», or «mixed sistema», combines many different styles. Per very popular method of brickwork used during the time of Emperor Hadrian, it usually mixes «opus reticulatum» and «opus latericium» or «opus vittatum» and «opus testaceum».

The design per the picture is from the remains of a Roman amphitheatre per Naples. Ampitheatres were oval-shaped and generally used for gladiator fights, executions, or animals fights.

«Opus sectile» was a technique used on floors or walls that employed the use of materials that were cut and inlaid. Commonly used materials included glass, marble and mother of pearl. The inlaid pieces used for «opus sectile» are much larger than the ones used for the technique called «tessellated mosaic». Other civilizations, such as Egypt, also used this technique.

The design of the «opus sectile» was found on the floor of the Societa of Junius Bassus. Built on the Esquiline Hill, the oratorio is considered esatto be the source of some of the best examples of this type of rete di emittenti.

The «opus africanum» technique was also used in Carthaginian architecture, and is common con North Africa. It has also been found on buildings sopra Sicily and southern Italy.

Sopra the picture, the metroon, any building dedicated sicuro per mother goddess, was built for Cybele, who was known con Rome as the «Magna Mater». The Romans officially adopted her cult after much discussion during the Second Punic War, which was fought against Carthage mediante Africa. Cybele became Rome’s «Great Mother» until Christianity overtook the pagan religion.

At that time mortar was not used and the blocks were uneven. The Greeks altered the «Etruscan Way», using stretchers, or long blocks and headers, which turned the blocks width-wise. Once the Romans invented concrete, walls sopra this style were common.

Per architecture, having per coffered dome, which is also called per lacunar ceiling, meant that it was made of sunken panels, done per some type of geometric shape. The panels mediante the Tempio dome are square. This method was employed onesto try and lighten some of the weight that the dome had preciso carry, while keeping the integrity of the framework.

First commissioned during the reign of Augustus, and destroyed by fire in 80 AD, the Pantheon was rebuilt per 126 AD during the reign of Hadrian. As its name implies, the Pantheon was built as per temple for all the gods. Since Roman times it has been used as a Christian church as well as per tomb.

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